Literární styl – série cvičení
TASK 1: Who are the authors of these excerpts?
1) It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife. – Jane Austen, PRIDE AND PREJUDICE
2) Maybe away from Paris I could write about Paris as in Paris I could write about Michigan. I did not know it was too early for that because I did not know Paris well enough. But that was how it worked out eventually. Anyway we would go if my wife wanted to, and I finished the oysters and the wine and paid my score in the café and made it the shortest way back up the Montagne Ste. Geneviève through the rain, that was now only local weather and not something that changed your life, to the flat at the top of the hill. – Ernest Hemingway, A MOVEABLE FEAST
3) Goodwives,” said a hard-featured dame of fifty, “I’ll tell ye a piece of my mind. It would be greatly for the public behoof, if we women, being of mature age and church-members in good repute, should have the handling of such malefactresses as this Hester Prynne. What think ye, gossips? If the hussy stood up for judgment before us five, that are now here in a knot together, would she come off with such a sentence as the worshipful magistrates have awarded? Marry, I trow not!” – Nathaniel Hawthorne, THE SCARLET LETTER
4) Those who find ugly meanings in beautiful things are corrupt without being charming. This is a fault. Those who find beautiful meanings in beautiful things are the cultivated. For these there is hope. They are the elect to whom beautiful things mean only Beauty. There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all. – Oscar Wilde, THE PICTURE OF DORIAN GRAY
5) My love for Linton is like the foliage in the woods. Time will change it, I’m well aware, as winter changes the trees—my love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneath—a source of little visible delight, but necessary. Nelly, I am Heathcliff—he’s always, always in my mind—not as a pleasure, any more than I am always a pleasure to myself—but as my own being. – Emily Brontë, WUTHERING HEIGHTS
6) No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friends or of thine own were: any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bells tolls; it tolls for thee. – John Donne, NO MAN IS AN ISLAND
7) Episode 17, „Ithaca“, „cast in the form of the Christian Catechism!“ as Gwendolen exclaims.
‚WHAT PARALLEL COURSES DID BLOOM AND STEPHEN FOLLOW RETURNING? Starting united both at normal walking pace from Beresford place they followed in the order named Lower and Middle Gardiner streets and Mountjoy square, west: then, at reduced pace, each bearing left, Gardiner’s place by an inadvertance as far as the farther corner of Temple street, north: then at reduced pace with interruptions of halt, bearing right, Temple street, north, as far as Hardwicke place. Approaching, disparate, at relaxed walking pace they crossed both the circus before George’s church diametrically, the chord in any circle being less than the arc which it subtends. – James Joyce, ULYSSES TASK 2: Find the correct definition for the following literary terms.
Symbol, theme, motif, mood, protagonist, allegory, pun, onomatopoeia, alliteration, oxymoron
TASK 3: Try to explain in your own words these literary techniques.
stream of consciousness
a humorous play on words
element, subject, idea or concept that is constantly present through the entire body of literature
the repetition of an initial sound in two or more words of a phrase, line, or sentence.
the formation and use of words that suggest, by their sounds, the object or idea being named or the imitation of natural sounds
the atmosphere that pervades a literary work with the intention of evoking a certain emotion or feeling from the audience
the general idea or meaning of a literary work
a literary work where the SETTING, CHARACTERS or ACTION make sense on a literal level, but also convey an abstract level of meaning, which is usually religious or political in nature
the main character or lead figure in a novel, play, story, or poem
a figure of speech in which two contradictory words or phrases are combined to produce a rhetorical effect by means of a concise paradox.
a word or object that stands for another word or object
TASK 4: Literary quizz
1. What’s the difference between a metaphor and a simile?
2. What’s the difference between metaphor and metonymy?
3. What’s the difference between metaphor and personification?
4. What’s the difference between alliteration and assonance?
5. substituting the word “euthanasia” for “mercy killing“ or „killing the terminally ill“ (a) hyperbole (b) euphemism (c) assonance (d) oxymoron
6. I had so much homework last night that I needed a pickup truck to carry all my books home! (a) synechdoche (b) onomatopoeia (c) pun (d) hyperbole
7. The chug-a, chug-a, chug-a of the train echoed down the hill, while a cloud of smoke rose up to the blue western sky. (a) simile (b) metonymy (c) anaphora (d) onomatopoeia
8. But the prisoner would not answer, he only lay with wide, dark, bright, eyes, like a bound animal. (D. H. Lawrence, England, My England) (a) oxymoron (b) euphemism (c) anaphora (d) personification
9. You have a lot of work to do, so I’ll lend you a hand. (a) assonance (b) apostrophe (c) irony (d) synechdoche
10. Why do we wait until a pig is dead to cure it? (a) pun (b) personification (c) anaphora (d) synechdoche
TASK 5: Match these authors with literary movements they are associated with:
Lake poetry, Beat Generation, Naturalism, Modernism, Postmodernism, Harlem Renaissance, Pre-Raphaelitism, Confessional poetry, Romanticism, Transcendentalism
1 – William Wordsworth
2 – Stephen Crane
3 – Allen Ginsberg
4 – James Joyce
5 – Langston Hughes
6 – Dante Gabriel Rossetti
7 – Thomas Pynchon
8 – Sylvia Plath
9 – John Keats
10 – Ralph Waldo Emerson TASK 6: What do you think of this quotation of T.S.Eliot about plagiarism?
„Immature poets imitate, mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different. “ (T.S. Elliot, 1920)