William Shakespeare was born on 23.April 1564 in Stratford-Upon-Avon and died on the same day in 1616, in Stratford-Upon-Avon.
He was baptized (pokřtěný) in Holy Trinity church, there was he also buried (pohřben) too.
His parents were John Shakespeare and Mary Arden. His father was a gloves maker and a bailiff (městský správce) of Stratford
He was educated at school in Stratford: Gild Grammar School. William studied Latin, classic historians (historici), moralists poets.
When he was 18, he married Anne Hathaway. They had three children: the oldest one was Susan and twins (Judith and Hamnet). Hamnet died when 11.
There are stories that he stolen deer
His first job at the theatre was probably a caretaker of horses of theatergoers. (navštěvovatelé divadla)
In 1529 was a first document mentioning Shakespeare in the literary world
In 1594 he became an important member of Lord Chamberlain’s Men. It was the playing company that William Shakespeare worked for throughout most of his career. Formerly known as The Lord Chamberlain’s Men during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, it became The King’s Men in 1603 when King James ascended the throne and became the company’s patron. Lord Chamberlain’s Men = best actor: Richard Burbage; best theatre: The Globe; the best playwright: Shakespeare. The company prospered and Shakespeare earned a lot of money. He bought ´New Place´
He wrote 37 plays and 154 sonnets. Shakespeare performed for Elizabeth I and James I, who both loved theatre, at Hampton court (they lived there).
He spent the last part of his life in New Place in Stratford. He died on 23.4 1616 and he was buried in Holy Trinity Church in Stratford as the only person who is buried there, because of these lines which are inscribed on his gravestone:
Good friend, for Jesus sake forbear
To dig the dust enclosed here
Blest be the man that spares these stones
And curst be he that moves my bones
Shakespeare left a will (závěť) giving all his property to his eldest daughter Susanna and his ´second best bed´ to his wife
Comedies: The Taming of the Shrew |The Merchant of Venice |As you like it
Sonnets: A Midsummer Night’s Dream
Romeo and Juliet
I think this is the best known tragedy all over the world.
It is about the unhappy love and death. The main characters are Romeo Montague and Juliet Capulet – the only children of two powerful houses of Verona. These two houses hate each other. Romeo Montague meets Juliet
at the ball. He fells in love with her although he knows that she is Capulet. They love each other very much
and ask Friar Laurence to marry them. Their love and marriage are secret. But then Romeo kills Tybalt who is Juliet’s cousin. Prince of Verona sends Romeo to the exile outside Verona and young Juliet is forced to get married to Paris. She ask Friar Laurence for help again and he gives her magic drops after which she fells asleep for several hours and looks as if she was dead. Romeo learns about Juliet’s death in Mantua and hurries to the Capulet’s Monument in a churchyard. He does not know about the trick and kills himself. Soon after that Juliet wakes up and when she sees Romeo dead, she kills herself too. Both Montague and Capulet Houses reconciliate only after the death of their children.
This is also a tragedy. Hamlet is the Prince of Denmark. His mother, a Queen, is a widow and marries Hamlet’s uncle Claudius. However the ghost of dead king appears and tells him, that it was the Queen and Claudius who killed him. He wants revenge. Hamlet writes a theatre play based on this story. But Claudius recognizes that
the play is about him and sends Hamlet to England to be killed. Later Hamlet comes back to Denmark, Claudius is alarmed and wants to destroy Hamlet. Finally Hamlet kills the whole family and he is also killed.